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Glossary

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Above the fold A term derived from printed media, which is used to indicate whether a piece of content is displayed on a web page without the need to scroll. It is preferable to have important content above the fold. The exact position of the fold will be determined by the screen resolution of a users personal computer.

Active Server Page (ASP) A type of HTML page (denoted by an .asp file name) that includes scripts (small programs) that are processed on a web serverbefore the web page is served to the users web browser, ASP is a Microsoft technology that usually runs on a Microsoft Internet Information Server. The main use of such aprograms is to process information supplied by the user in an online form. A query may then be run to provide specific information to the customer such as delivery status on an order, or a personalised web page.

ActiveX A programming language standard developed by Microsoft, which permits complex and graphical customer applications to be written and then accessed from a web browser. ActiveX components are standard controls that can be incorporated into web sites and are then automatically downloaded for users. Examples are graphics and animation or a calculator form for calculating interest on a loan or a control for graphing stock prices. Considered to be a competitor to Java.

Ad Creative The design and content of an advertisement.

Ad Impression Similar in concept to a page impression; describes one viewing of an advertisement by a single member of its audience. The same as ad view, a term less commonly used.

Ad Inventory The total number of ad impressions that a web site can sell over time (usually specified per month). Before purchasing inventory an assessment of current usage should be performed. Adverts from the organisation itself or partners may indicate poor sales and therefore an ability to negotiate.

Ad Rotation This occurs when advertisements are changed on a web site for different user sessions. This may be in response to ad targetting or simply displaying different advertisements from those on a list. Experience shows that banner adverts particularly beome tired with reuse and should be rotated on a regular basis.

Ad Serving The term for displaying an advertisement on a web site. Often the advertisement will be served from a different web server from the site on which it is placed.

Ad Space The area of a web page that is set aside for banner advertising. Standard banner sizes are set by the Internet Advertising Bureau.

Ad View Similar in concept to a page impression; describes one viewing of an advertisement by a single member of its audience. The same as ad impression, the term that is more commonly used.

Advertisement Advertisements on websites can be banner advertisements, microsites, sponsored content or can be more subtle exposure to brand elements (colours, fonts, tone of voice etc..)

Advertising Networks A collection of independent web sites of different companies and media networks, each of which has an arrangement with a single advertising broker to place advertising.

Agents Software programs that can assist people to perform tasks such as finding particular information such as the best price for a product.

Aggregated Buying A from of customer union where buyers collectively purchase a number of items at the same price and receive a volume discount.

Analysis Phase The identification of the requirements of a web site. Techniques to achieve this may include focus groups of key users or questionnaires sent with existing customers or interviews with key stakeholders.

Animated Banner Advertisement Typically banner adverts consist of several images which are displayed in a repeating sequence to help attract attention to itself. There is often a call to action with a piece of text such as 'Click Here'. The files used for this type of animation are often GIFs or MacroMedia Flash.

Attrition Rate Percentage of site visitors which are lost as they proceed through the site or purchasing process.

Autoresponders Software tools or agents running on web servers, which automatically send a standard reply to the sender of an email message.

Avatar A term used in computer mediated environment to mean a virtual person.

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Backbone High speed communications links used to enable internet communications across and between countries.

Bandwidth Indicates the speed at which data is transferred using a particular network medium. It is measured in bits per second (bps).

Banner Advertisement Typically a rectangular graphic displayed on a web page for purposes of branding or driving traffic to a site. It is normally possible for a use to click on the banner to be taken to another web site or specific piece of web content. Banners are generally animated but can also be static.

Behavioural Traits of Web Users Web users can be broadly divided into directed and undirected information seekers.

Bid A commitment by a trader to purchase under certain conditions.

Brand The sum of the characteristics of a product or service perceived by a user.

Brand Equity The brand assets (or liabilities) linked to a brands name and symbol that add to (or subtract) from a service.

Brand Identity The totality of brand associations including name and symbols that must be communicated.

Branding The process of creating and evolving successful brands.

Bricks and Mortar A traditional organisation with a limited online presence.

Broadband Technology A term referring to methods of delivering information across the internet at a higher rate by increasing bandwidth.

Brochure ware A web site in which a company has simply transferred its existing paper based materials on to the internet without recognising the differences required by the medium.

Business-to-Business (B2B) Commercial transactions between an organisation and other organisations (inter-organisational marketing).

Business-to-Business Exchanges or Marketplaces Virtual intermediaries with facilities to enable trading between buyers and sellers.

Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Commercial transactions between an organisation and customers.

Buy-side e-Commerce eCommerce transactions between a purchasing organisation and its suppliers.

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Call Centre A location for inbound and outbound telemarketing.

Callback Service A direct response facility available on a web site to enable a company to contact a customer by phone at a later time as specified by the customer.

Catalogue Catalogues provide a structured listing of registered web sites in different categories. Yahoo and Excite are examples of catalogues or directories as they are sometimes referred to.

Certificate A valid copy of a public key of an individual or organisation together with identification information. It is issued by a trusted third party (ttp) or certification authority (ca).

Certification Authority An organisation issuing and managing certificates or public keys and private keys to individuals or organisations together with identification information.

Channel Behaviour Describes which web content is visited and the time and duration.

Channel Conflicts A significant threat arising from the introduction of an internet channel is that while disintermediation gives the opportunity for a company to sell direct and increase the profitability of products it can also threaten existing distribution arrangements with existing partners.

Channel Outcomes Records customer actions taken as a consequence of a visit to a site.

Channel Profitability The profitability of the web site, taking into account revenue and cost and discounted cash flow.

Channel Promotion Measures assess why customers visit a site - which adverts have they seen, which sites have they been referred from.

Channel Satisfaction Evaluation of the customers opinion of the service quality on the site and supporting services such as email.

Clicks and Mortar A business combining online and offline presence.

Clicks Only or Internet Pure playAn organisation with principally an online presence.

Click Stream A record of the path a user takes through a web site. Click streams enable web site designers to assess how their site is being used.

Click Through A click through (ad click) occurs each time a user clicks on a banner advertisement with the mouse to direct them to a web page that contains further information.

Click Through Rate (CTR) Expressed as a percentage of the total ad impressions, and refers to the proportion of users viewing an advertisement who click on it. It is calculated as the number of click through's divided by the number of ad impressions.

Click Tracking Java technology can be used to track movements of individuals users to a web site.

Client Server The client server architecture consists of client computers such as PCs sharing resources such as a database stored on a more powerful server computer.

Cobranding An arrangement between two or more companies where they agree to jointly display content and perform joint promotion using brand logos or brand advertisements. The aim is that the brands are strengthened if they are seen as complementary. This is a reciprocal arrangement, which can occur without payment.

Collaborative Filtering Profiling of customer interest coupled with delivery of specific information and offers, often based on the interests of similar customers.

Commoditisation The process whereby product selection becomes more dependent on price than differentiating features, benefits and value added services.

Common Gateway Interface (CGI) A method of processing information on a web server in response to a customers request. Typically a user will fill in a web based form and the results will be processed by a CGI script (application).

Competitive Intelligence A process that transforms disaggregated information into relevant, accurate and usable strategic knowledge about competitors, position, performance, capabilities and intentions.

Competitor Analysis Review of internet marketing services offered by existing and new competitors and adoption by their customers.

Computer Telephony Integration The integration of telephony and computing to provide a platform for applications that streamline or enhance business processes.

Consumer-To-Business Consumers approach the business with an offer.

Consumer-To-Consumer Informational or financial transactions between consumers, but usually mediated through a business site.

Content Content is the design, text and graphical information that forms a web page. Good quality and relevant content is seen as being key to attracting customers to a web site and retainng their interest or achieving repeat visits.

Content Management Software tools for managing additions and ammendments to web site content.

Convergence A trend in which different hardware devices such as televisions, computers and telephones merge and have similar functions.

Conversion Marketing Using marketing communications to maximise conversion of potential customers to actual customers.

Conversion Rate Proportion of visitors to a site, or viewers of an advert who takes an action.

Cookies Cookies are small text files stored on anend users computer to enable web sites to identify the user. They enable a company to identify a previous visitor to a site, and build up a profile of that visitors behaviour.

Compelling Competitive Advantage (CPP) The key advantages of a product or web site over that of its competitors.

Core Product The fundamental features of the product that meet the users needs.

Core Tenants A shopping centre or mall is usually a centrally owned managed facility. In the physical world, the management will aim to include in the mall stores that sell a different but complementary range of merchandise and include a variety of smaller and larger stores. The core tenants or anchor stores as they are often called are the dominant large scale store operators that are expected to draw customers to the centre.

Cost Models for Internet Advertising These include per exposure, per response and per action costs.

Cost Per Mille (CPM) Cost per 1 000 ad impressions.

Cost Per Targetted Mille (CPTM) Cost per targeted thousand for an advertisement.

Countermediation Creation of a new intermediary by an established company.

Customer Acquisition Techniques used to gain new customers.

Customer Extension Techniques to encourage customers to increase their involvement with an organisation.

Customer Lifecycle The stages each customer will pass through in a long term relationship through acquisition, retention and extension.

Customer Orientation Providing content and services on a web site consistent with the different characteristics of the auddience of the site.

Customer Personalisation A technique to provide targeted information / content / services to meet the needs of a specific customer.

Customer Profiling Using the web site to find out customers specific interests and characteristics.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) A marketing led approach to building and sustaining long term business with customers.

Customer Retention Techniques to maintain relationships with existing customers.

Customer Selection Identifying key customer segments and targetting them for relationship building.

Cybermediaries Intermediaries whom by using the web bring together buyers and sellers or those with particular information or service needs.

Cybermarketing A term used to refer to marketing using machines, electronic communications and the web.

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Data Fusion The combining of data from different complementary sources (usually geodemograohic and lifestyle or market research and lifestyle) to build a picture of someones life.

Data Protection Term referring to the legislation in place to protect the use of personal electronic data and its use by companies.

Data Warehousing / Data Mining Extracting data from legacy systems and other resources; cleaning, scrubbing and preparing data for decision support; maintaining data in appropriate data stores; accessing and analysing data using a variety of end user tools; and mining data for significant relationships. The primary purpose of these efforts is to provide easy access to specifically prepared data that can be used with decision support applications such as management reports, queries, decision support systems, executive information systems and data mining.

Database Marketing The process of systematically collecting, in electronic or optical form, data about past, current and / or potential customers, maintaining the integrity of the data by continually monitoring customer purchases, by enquiring about changing status, and by using the data to formulate marketing strategy and foster personalised relationships with customers.

Decryption The process of decoding a message that has been encypted using defined mathematical rules.

Deep Linking This occurs when a user is taken from a hyperlink deep into the structure of a web site. This is considered to be bad practice as website structure may change with time and the link may become broken or inappropriate.

Demand Analysis for e-Commerce Assessment of the demand for ecommerce sevices amongst existing and potential customer segments using the ratio Access : Choose : Buy Online.

Demographic Characterisitics Variations in attributes of the population such as age, sex, social class.

Design Phase The design phase defines how a web site will work in the key areas of structure, navigation and security.

Destination Site (or Destination Page) Frequently used to refer to the site that is visited following a click through on a banner advertisement or hyperlink.

Destination Store A retail store in which the merchandise, selection, presentation, pricing or other unique features act as a magnet for customers.

Development Phase Is the term used to describe the creation of a web site by programmers. It involves combining the text, graphics and functionality into an appropriate design with the required coded functionality.

Differential Advantage A desirable attribute of a product offering that is not currently matched by competitor offerings.

Differential Pricing Identical products are priced differently for different types of customers, markets or buying situations.

Digital Brand A digital brand is a brand identity used for a product or company online that differs from the traditional brand.

Digital Cash An electronic version of cash in which the buyer of an item is typically anonymous to the seller.

Digital Certificates A method of ensuring privacy on the internet. Certificates consist of keys made up of large numbers that are used to uniquely identify individuals.

Digital Signatures The electronic equivalent of written signatures which are used as an online method of identifying individuals or companies using public key encryption.

Digital Television Information is received and displayed on a digital television using binary information, giving options for better picture and sound quality and providing additional information services based on interactivity.

Direct Marketing Marketing to customers using one or more advertising media aimed at achieving measurable response and / or transaction.

Direct Response Usually achieved in an internet marketing context by call back services.

Directed Information Seeker Someone who knows what information they are looking for.

Directories Directory web sites provide a structured listing of registered web sites in different categories. Examples include Yahoo and Excite.

Disintermediation The removal of intermediaries such as distributors or brokers that formerly linked a company to its customers. In particular disintermediation enables a company to sell direct to the customer by cutting out the middleman.

Disruptive Technologies New technologiesthat prompt businesses to reappraise their strategic approaches.

Domain Name The domain name system (DNS) provides a method of representing internet protocol (IP) addresses as text based names. These are usedas web addresses. For example www.microsoft.com is the representation of site 207.68.156.58. Domain names are divided into the following categories: (i) Top level domain names such as .com or .co.uk (also known as global (or generic) top level domain names (gLTD).) (ii) Second level domain names. This referes to the company name and is sometimes referred to as the enterprise name e.g. ibm.com. (iii) Third level or sub enterprise domain names. This may be used to refer to an individual server within an organisation, such as support.ibm.com.

Domain Name Registration This is the process of registering the domain name with the local naming authority. The rules differ from country to country, some require proof of existance of a company or trademark before registration is allowed.

Doorway Pages Specially constructed web page which features keywords and specific information which can be read by search engines for particular information searches. These often redirect visitors to a home page.

Download The process of retrieving electronic information such as a web page or email from another remote location such as a web server.

Drip Irrigation Collecting information about customer needs through their lifetime.

Dynamic Pricing Prices can be updated in real time according to the typeof customer or current market conditions.

Dynamic Web Pages A page that is created in real time, often with reference to a database query, in response to a user request.

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Early Adopters Individuals / companies or departments that invest in new technologies / methodologies when they first become available in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage despite the higher risk entailed that that involved in a more cautious approach.

Early / First Mover Advantage An early entrant into the marketplace has this advantage.

eBusiness All electronically mediated information exchanges, both within an organisation and with external stakeholders supporting the range of business processes.

eCommerce All financial and informational electronically mediated exchanges between an organisation and its external stakeholders.

Effective Frequency The number of exposures or ad impressions required for an advertisement to become effective.

eGovernment The use of internet technologies to provide government services to citizens.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) The exchange using digital media of standardised business documents such as purchase orders and invoices between buyers and sellers.

eMail Sending messages or documents such as news about a new product or sales promotion between individuals.

eMail Advertising Advertisements contained within email such as newsletters. More recently html emails (which contain graphics) or perhaps table of contents are used to send marketing messages as well as information to those subscribed.

eMarketing Achieving marketing objectives throuh use of electronic communications technology.

Emergent Strategy Strategic analysis, strategic development and strategy implementation are interrelated and are developed together.

Encapsulated Post Script (EPS) An extentension of the post script graphics file format developed by Adobe Systems. Generally used by desktop publishing packages.

Encryption The scrambling of information into a form that cannot be interpreted. Decryption is used to make the information readable.

Enterprise Application Integration The middleware technology that is used to connect together different software applications and their underlying databases is now known as enterprise application integration.

Entry Page The page at which a visitor enters a web site. Often considered the most important page of a site, which should clearly indicate the purpose of the site and download quickly to the users browser.

Environmental Scanning and Analysis The process of continuously monitoring the environment (legislation, regulatory, competitors) and events and responding accordingly.

eShock The internet encourages disintermediation and creates greater price transparency enabling customers to shop around forcing retailers to reduce margins to maintain their business.

Evaluating a Web Site Evaluation can be performed using a variety of measures including: usability, accessibility, browser compatability, search engine and code optimisation etc..

Exit Page The page from which a visitor exits a web site. Often identified by analysis of the log files created on the server. Can often be used to diagnose usability issues.

Exposure Based Payment Advertisers pay according to the number of times the ad is viewed.

Extended Product Additional features and benefits beyond the core product.

Extranet An extranet is formed by extending the intranet beyond a company to customers, suppliers, coolborators or even competitors. This is password protected to prevent access by general internet users.

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File Transfer Protocol A standard method for moving files across the internet. FTP is available as ae of web browsers that is sometimes used for marketing applications such as downloading files such as product price lists or specifications. Standalone FTP packages such as WSFTP are commonly used to update HTML files on web servers when uploading revisions to the web server.

Firewall A specialised software application mounted on a server or personal computer where it is connected to the internet. Its purpose is to prevent unauthorised access into the server / pc by outsiders. Firewalls are essential for all companies hosting their own web server.

Flow Describes a state in which users have a positive experience from readily controlling their navigation and interaction on a web site.

Focus Groups These are groups of individuals who are invited to interact on a specific project or issue, possibly by partcipating in a discussion group. This is where different members of the focus group respond to prompts from the focus group leaders.

Form A method on a web page of entering information such as order details.

Forward Auctions Items purchased by highest bid made in bidding period.

Frame A technique used to divide a web page into different parts such as a menu and separate content. These are now considered to be bad practice.

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Global (or generic) Top-Level Domain Names (gLTD) The part of the domain name that refers to the category of site. It is usually the rightmost part of the domain name such as .ac.uk, ..edu or .com

Globalisation The increase of international trading and sharing of information, social and cultural values.

Gopher Gopher is a directory based structure containing information in certain categories.

Graphic Design All factors that govern the physical appearance of a web page.

Grahics Interchange Format (GIF) GIF is a graphic format used to display images within web pages. An interlaced GIF is displayed gradually on the screen, building up an image in several passes.

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Hit A hit is recorded for each graphic or block of text requested from a web server. It is not a reliable measure for the number of people viewing a page. A page impression is a more reliable measure denoting one person viewing one page.

Home Page The index (or default) page of a web site with menu options or links to other resources on the web site.

House List A list of prospect and customer names, email addresses and profile information owned by an organisation.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) A standard format used to define the text and layout of web pages. HTML files usually have the extension .htm or .html.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) A standard that defines the way information is transmitted acrooss the internet.

Hyperlink A method of moving between one web site page and another, indicated to the user by text highlighted by underlining and / or a different colour. Hyperlinks can sometimes be made through text or graphics.

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Inbound email email arriving with an organisation / individual.

Inbound Customer Contact Strategies Approaches to managing the cost and quality of service related to management of customer enquiries.

Incidental Offline Advertising Driving traffic to the web site is not a primary objective of the offline advert.

Infomediary An intermediary business whose main source of revenue derives from capturing consumer information and developing detailed profiles of individual customers for use by third parties.

Information Organisation Schemes The structure chosen to group and categorise information.

Initiation of Web Project This phase of the web project should involve a structured review of the costs and benefits of developing a web site (or making a major revision to a web site). A successful outcome to initiation will be a decision to proceed with the site development phase, with an agreed budget and target completion date.

Insertion Order A printed order to run an advertisement campaign. It defines the campaign name, the web site receiving the order and the planner or buyer giving the order, the individual advertisements to be run (or who will provide them), the sizes of the advertisements, the campaign begining and end dates, the CPM, the total cost, discounts to be applied, and reporting requirements and possible penalties or dtipulations relative to the failure to deliver the impressions.

Interactive Banner Advertisement A banner advertisement which enables the user to enter information.

Interactive TV Television displayed using a digital signal delivered by a range of media - cable, satellite, terrestrial. Interactions can be provided through phone line or cable service.

Interactivity The medium enables a dialogue between company and customer.

Intermediaries Online sites that help bring together different parties such as buyers and sellers.

Interruption Marketing Marketing communications that disrupt customers activities.

Internet The physical network that links computers across the globe. It consists of the infrastructure of network servers and communication links between them, which are used to hold and transport the vast amount of information on the internet. The internet enables the transfer of messages and transactions between connected computers worldwide.

Internet Contribution An assessment of the extent to which the internet contributes to sales is a key measure of the importance of the internet to a company.

Internet EDI Use of electronic data interchange standards delivered across non proprietary internet protocol networks.

Internet Governance Control of the operation and use of the internet.

Internet Marketing The application of the internet and related digital technologies to achieve marketing objectives.

Internet Marketing Strategy Definition of the approach by which internet marketing will support marketing and business objectives.

Internet Pureplay An organisation with the majority of its customer facing operations online.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) A communications tool that allows a text based chat between different users who are logged on at the same time.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) Companies that provide home or business users with a connection to access the internet. They can also host websites or provide a link from web servers to enable other companies and consumers access to a corporate web site.

Interstitial ads Ads that appear between one web page and the next.

Intranet A network within a single company that enables access to company information using the familar tools of the internet such as web browsers and email. Only staff within a company can access the intranet, which will be password protected.

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Java A programming language standard supported by Sun Microsystems, which permits complex and graphical customer applications to be written and then accessed from a web browser.

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) A compressed graphics standard specified by the JPEG. Used for graphic images typically requiring use of many colours, such as product photographs where some loss of quality is acceptable. The format allows for some degradation in image quality to enable more rapid download.

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Lead Details about a potential customer.

Lead Generation Offers Offered in return for customers providing their contact details and characteristics.

List Broker An individual or organisation who will obtain contact lists (email addresses) from the appropriate list owner.

List Owner An individual or organisation which has collected email addresses which may be offered for sale (depending on the legal constraints under which they were collected and with which permissions they were obtained).

Live Web Site The current web site accessible as opposed to the test web site which may not be open and available to the public.

Localisation Specifically designing the content of the web site in such a way that it is appropriate to different audiences in different countries or regions.

Log File A file stored on a web server that records every items downloaded by users. For sites receiving alot of traffic these log file can become very large and increasingly difficult to analyse and manipulate to extract meaningful data.

Log File Analysers Tools that are used to build a picture of the amount of usage of different parts of a web site based on the information contained in the log file.

Loyalty Techniques Customers sign up to an incentive scheme where they receive points for repeat purchases, which can be converted into offers such as discounts, free products or cash.

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Maintenance Process The work involved in running a live web site such as updating pages / links and checking the performance of the site.

Marketing Mix The series of seven key variables (7Ps) that are varied by marketers as part of the customer offering (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process and Physical evidence).

Market Space A virtual marketplace such as the internet in which no direct contact occurs between buyers and sellers.

Mass Customisation The ability to create tailored marketing messages or products for individual customers or a group of similar customers (a bespoke service), yet retain the economies of scale and the capacity of mass marketing or production.

Mass Marketing One to many communication between a company and potential customers with limited tailoring of the message.

Media Broker An organisation or company that places advertisements for a number of companies by contacting the media owner and negotiating discounts for bulk purchasing or guarantees of minimum inventory over time.

Media Buyer The person within a company wishing to advertise who places the advertisement usually via a media broker.

Media Owners The owners of web sites (or other media such as newspapers) that accept advertisements.

Meta Data Literally data about data - a format describing the structure and content of data.

Meta Search Engines Meta search engines submit keywords typed by users to a range of search engines in order to increase the number of relevant pages since different search engines may have indexed different sites. An example is the metacrawler search engine or www.mamma.com.

Meta Tag Text within an HTML file summarising the content of the site (content meta tag) and relevant key words (keyword meta tag), which are matched against the keywords typed into search engines.

Metrics for Internet Marketing Measures that indicate the effectiveness of internet marketing activities in meeting customer, business and marketing objectives.

Micropayments (microtransactions) digital cash systems that allow very small sums of money (fractions of 1p) to be transferred but with lower security. Such small sums do not warrant a credit card payment because processing is to costly.

Micro Site A small self contained web site within an existing site or separate containing specialised content that is not necessarily owned by the organisation.

Mixed Mode Buying The process by which a customer changes between online and offline channels during the buying process.

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Navigation The method of finding and moving between different information and pages on a web site. It is governed by menu arrangements, site structure and the layout of individual pages.

Nested Ad Content This refers to the situation when the person undertaking the click through is not redirected to a corporate or brand site, but is instead taken to a related page on the same site as that on which the advertisement is placed.

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Offer An incentive in direct marketing or a product offering.

Offline Web Metric Offline measures are those that are collated by marketing staff recording particular marketing outcomes such as an enquiry or a sale. They are usually collated, manually but could be collated automatically.

One-to-One Marketing A unique dialogue that occurs directly between a company and the individual customers (or less strictly with groups of customers with similar needs). The dialogue involves a company in listening to customer needs and responding with services to meet these needs.

Online Promotion Contribution An assessment of the proportion of customers (new or retained) who are researched by online communications and are influenced as a result.

Online Revenue Contribution An assessment of the direct contribution of the internet or other digital media to sales, usually expressed as a percentage of overall sales revenue.

Online Service Providers (OSP) An OSP is sometimes used to distinguish large internet service providers from other access providers. In the UK, AOL and VirginNet can be considered OSPs since they have a large amount of specially developed content available to their subscribers. Note that this term is not used as frequently as ISP and the distinction between ISPs and OSPs is a blurred one since all OSPs are also ISPs and the distinction only occurs according to the amount of premium content.

Online Service Quality Gap The mismatch between what is expected and delivered by an online presence.

Online Value Proposition (OVP) A statement of the benefits of ecommerce services that ideally should not be available in competitor offerings or offline offerings.

Online Web Metrics Online measures are those that are collected automatically on the web server often in a server log file.

Operational Effectiveness Performing similar activities better than rivals. This includes efficiency of processes.

Opt In eMail The customer is only contacted when he or she has explicitly asked for information to be sent.

Outbound eMail email sent from a company or organisation.

Out Sourcing Contracting an outside company to undertake part of the internet marketing activities.

Overt Typically an animated ad that moves around the page and is superimposed on the web site content.

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Page Impression One page impression occurs when a member of the audience views a single web page.

Page Request The process of a user selecting a hyperlink or typing in a uniform resource locator to retrieve information on a specific web page.

Page View see page impression

People Variable The element of the marketing mix that involves the delivery of service to customers during interactions with those customers.

Perfect Market An efficient market where there are an infinite number of suppliers and buyers and complete price transparency.

Performance Drivers Critical success factors that determine whether business and marketing objectives are achieved.

Performance Measurement System The process by which metrics are defined, collected, disseminated and actioned.

Performance of Website Performance or quality of service is dependent on its availability and speed of access.

Permission Marketing Customers agree (opt in) to be involved in an organisations marketing activities, usually as a result of an incentive.

Personalisation Web based personalisation involves delivering customised content for the individual through web pages, email or push technology.

PEST

Phone Me A callback facility available on the web site for a company to contact a customer by phone at a later time, as specified by the customer.

Physical Evidence Variable The element of the marketing mix that involves the tangible expression of a product and how it is purchased and used.

Pixel The small dot on a computer screen that are used to represent images and text. Short for picture element and used as a means of measurement when specifying graphic sizes.

Place The element of the marketing mix that involves distributing products to customers in line with demand and minimising cost of inventory, transport and storage.

Plug In A program that must be downloaded to view particular content such as animations.

Portal A web site that acts as a gateway to the information on the internet by providing search engines, directories and other services such as personalised news or free email.

Portfolio Analysis Evaluation of value of current ecommerce services or applications.

Positioning Customers perception of the product offer relative to competitors.

Prescriptive Strategy The three core areas of strategic analysis, strategic development and strategy implementation are linked together sequentially.

Price Transparency Customer knowledge about pricing increases due to increased availability of pricing information.

Price Variable The element of the marketing mix that involves defining product prices and pricing models.

Pricing Model Describes the form of payment such as outright purchase, auction, rental, volume purchases and credit terms.

Privacy A moral and more recently a legal right of individuals to avoid intrusion into their personal affairs or email box.

Process Variable The element of the marketing mix that involves the methods and procedures companies use to achieve all marketing functions.

Product Variable The element of the marketing mix that involves researching customers needs and developing appropriate products.

Profiling see customer profling.

Promotion (online and offline) Online promotion uses communication via the internet itself to raise awareness about a site and drive traffic to it. This promotion may take the form of links from other sites, banner advertisements or targeted email. Offline promotion uses traditional media such as print, television or newspaper advertising and word of mouth to promote a companys web site.

Promotion Variable The element of the marketing mix that involves communication with customers and other stakeholders to inform tham ebout the prodyct and the organisation.

Prosumer Producer and consumer, the customer is closely involved in specifying their requirements in a product.

Prototype A prototype is a preliminary version of part (or a framework of all) of a web site that can be reviewed by its target audience, or the marketing team. Prototyping is an iterative process where web site users suggest modifications before further prototypes are made and the final version of the site is developed.

Psychographic Segmentation A breakdown of customers according to different characteristics.

Public Key A unique identifier of a buyer or a seller that is available to other parties to enable secure ecommerce using encryption based on digital certificates.

Public Key Encryption An asymmetric form of encryption in which the keys or digital certificates used by the sender and receiver of information are different. The two keys are related, so only the pair of keys can be used together to encrypt and decrypt information.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) The organisation responsible for issuing and maintaining certificates for public key security together form the PKI.

Pull Media The consumer is proactive in selection of the message through actively seeking out a web site.

Push Media Communications are broadcast from an advertiser to consumers of the message who are passive recipients.

Push Technology The delivery of web based content to the users desktop without the need for the user to visit a site to download information. Email cam also be considered to be push technology.

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Qualified Lead Contact and profile information for a customer with an indication of the level of their interest in product categories.

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Reach The number of unique individuals who view an advertisement (sometimes expressed as a percent of a total audience).

Referrer The site that a visitor previously visited before following a link.

Referring Sites A log file may indicate which site a user visited immediately before visiting the current one.

Registration (individual) The process whereby an individual subscribes to a site or requests further information by filling in contact details and his or her needs using an electonic form. Typically web search engines cannot spider sites beyond a registration request.

Registration of Domain Name The process of reserving a unique web address that can be used to refer to a web site. Several names may be used to point to the same web site.

Reintermediation The creation of new intermediaries between customers and suppliers providing services such as supplier search and product evaluation.

Relationship Marketing Consistent application of up to date knowledge of individual customers to product and service design, which is communicated interactively in order to develop a continuous mutually beneficial and long term relationship.

Repeat Visits If an organisation can encourage customers to return to the web site then the relationship can be maintained online.

Repurposing Developing for a new access platform, such as the web content which was previously used for a different platform. Example might be the reworking of a multimedia CDrom for presentation on the web.

Resource Analysis Review of the technological, financial and human resources of an organisation and how they are utilised in business processes.

Results Based Payment Advertisers pay according to the number of times a measurable outcome is achieved (click through or information request)

Retail Channel Retailers use of the internet as both a communication and a transactional channel concurrently in business to consumer markets.

Retail Format This is the general nature of the retail mix in terms of range of products and services, pricing policy, promotional programmes, operating style or store design and visual merchandising; examples include mail order retailers and department store retailers.

Retention The ability to retain customers over time .

Return on Advertising Spend (ROAS) This indicates amount of revenue generated from each referrer. ROAS = Total revenue generated from referrer divided by the amount spent on advertising with referrer.

Return on Investment (ROI) This indicates the profitability of any investment or in an advertising context, for each referring site. ROI = profit generated from investment divided by the cost of investment. OR ROI = profit generated from referrers divided by amount spent on advertising with referrer.

Return Path An interaction where the customer sends information to the iDTV provider using a phone line or cable connection.

Revenue Models Describes methods of generating income from an organisation.

Reverse Auctions Items purchased from lowest bidding supplier in bidding period.

Rich Media Advertisements Advertisements that are not static, but provide animation , sound or interactivity.

Robot A tool also known as a spider that is employed by search engines to index web pages of registered sites on a regular basis.

Run of Site A situation where a company pays for advertisements such as banners to promote its services across a web site.

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Sales Generation Offers These are offers that encourage product trial. An example would be a coupon offering money off a purchase.

Sales Promotions The internet offers tremendous opportunity for sales promotions of different type since it is more immeduate than any other medium - it is always available for communication and tactical variations in the details of the promotion can be made at short notice.

Saturation of the Internet Access to the internet will reach saturation as home PC ownership reaches a limit, unless other access devices become popular.

Scenario Based Analysis Models of the future environment are developed from different starting points.

Scenario of use A particular path or flow of events or activities performed by a visitor to a web site.

Scripts Scripts can either run on the users web browser (client side) or on the web server (server side scripts).

Search Engines Specialised web sites that use automatic tools known as spiders or robots to index web pages of registered sites looking for and identifying keywords. Users can search the index created by typing in keywords to specify their interest. Pages containing these keywords will be listed and by clicking on a hyperlink the user will be taken to the site.

Search Engine Listing The list of sites and descriptions returned by a search engine after a user types in keywords.

Search Engine Ranking The position of a site on a particular search engine. Typically search engine users visit only high ranking sites, so a high position is important.

Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) A standard for public key encryption intended to enable secure electronic commerce transactions lead developed by Mastercard and Visa.

Secure HTTP Encrypted HTTP.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A commonly used encryption technique for scrambling data such as credit card numbers as they are passed across the internet from a web browser to a web server.

Security Methods When systems for electronic commerce are devised, or when existing solutions are selected, the following attributes must be present: (1) Authentication - are parties to the transaction who they claim to be ? This is achieved through the use of digital certificates. (2) Privacy and Confidentiality - are transaction data protected ? The consumer may want to make an anonymous purchase. Are all non essential traces of a transaction removed from the public network and all intermediary records eliminated ? (3) Integrity - checks that the message sent is complete, i.e., that it is not corrupted. (4) Non repudiability - ensures sender cannot deny sending message. (5) Availability - how can threats to the continuity and performance of the system be eliminated.

Server Log File see online web metrics.

Service Quality The level of service received on a web site. Dependent on reliability, responsiveness and availability of staff and the web site service.

Serving Used to describe the process of displaying an advertisement on a web site (ad serving) or delivering a web page to a users web browser.

Short Message Service (SMS) The formal name for text messaging.

Site Auditors Auditors accurately measure the usage for different sites as the number of ad impressions and click through rates. Auditors include ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulations) and BPA (Business Publication Auditor) International.

Site Avaibility An indication of how easy it is to connect to a web site as a user. In theory this figure should be 100 per cent, but for technical reasons such as failures in the server hardware, communications line or upgrades of software, sometimes users cannot access the site and the figure falls velow 90 per cent.

Site Design Template A standard page layout format which is applied to each page of a web site.

Site Measurement see web site measurement.

Site Navigation Scheme Tools provided to the user to move between different information on a web site.

Site Re Launch Where a web site is replaced with a new verison with a new look, feel and possibly content and functionality.

Site Statistics Collected by log file analysers, these are used to monitor the effectiveness of a web site.

Site Stickiness An indication of how long a visitor stays on a site. Log file analysers can be used to access average visit times.

Site Visit One site visit records one customer visiting the site. Not equivalent to a user session.

Site Visitor Activity Data Information on contentand services accessed by ecommerce site visitors.

Sitemapping Tools These tools diagram the layout of the web site, which is useful for site management and can be used to assist users.

SMART Metrics SMART metrics must be Specifc, Measurable, Actionable, Relevant and Timely

SOSTAC A planning framework referring to Situation, Objectives, Strategy, Tactics, Actions and Control

Spam A term use dto describe unsolicited email, usually bulk and untargetted.

Spamming Bulk emailing of unsolicited mail.

Speific Offline Advertising Driving traffic to the web site or explaining the online proposition is a primary objective of the advert.

Spider A tool, also known as a robot, that is employed by search engines to index web pages of registered sites on a regular basis.

Splash Page A preliminary page that precedes the normal home page of a web site. Site users can either wait to be redirected to the home page or can follow a link to do this. Splash pages are not now commonly used as they slow down the users progress to a site.

Sponsorship Sponsorship involves a company payingmoney to advertise on a web site. The arrangement may involve more than advertising. Sponsorship is similar to co-branding.

Static Web Page A page on the web server which is invariant.

STEP A framework for asesseing the macro environment, standing for Social, Technological, Economic and Political (including legal).

Storyboarding Using static drawings or screen shots of the different parts of a web site to review the design concept with customers, clients or stakeholders.

Startegic Analysis Collection and review of information about an organisations internal processes and resources and external marketplace factors in order to inform strategy definition.

Strategic Positioning Performing different activities from rivals or performing similar activities in different ways.

Strategy Formulation Generation, review and selection of strategies to achieve strategic objectives.

Strategy Process Model A framework for approaching strategy development.

Streaming Media Sound and video that can be experienced within a web browser before the whole clip is downloaded.

Style Guide A definition of site structure, page design, typography and copy defined with an organisation.

Superstitials Pop up adverts that require interaction to remove them.

Surfer An undirected information seeker who is often looking for an experience rather than information.

SWOT A framework for situational analysis, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

Symmetric Encryption Both parties to a transaction use the same key to encode and decode messages.

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Tagging Tracking of origin of customers and their spending patterns.

Target Marketing Strategy Evaluation and selection of appropriate segments and the development of appropriate offers.

Targeting (through banner advertisers) Advertising networks such as DoubleClick offer advertisers the ability to target advertisements dynamically on the web through their DART targeting technology. This gives advertisers a means of reaching specific audiences.

Template see site design template

Test Web Site A parallel version of the site to use before the site is made available to customers as a live web site.

Testing Content Testing should be conducted for plug ins; for interactive facilities and integration with company databases; for spelling and grammar; for adherence to corporate image standards; for implementation of HTMLin different web browsers; and to ensure that links to external sites are valid.

Testing Phase Testing involves different aspects of the content such as spelling, validity of links, formatting on different web browsers and dynamic features such as form filling or database enquiries.

Traffic Building Campaign The use of online and offline promotion techniques such as banner advertising, search engine promotion and reciprocal linking to increase the audience of a site (both new and existing customers).

Transaction Log File A web server file that records all page requests.

Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol The passing of data packets around the internet occurs via TCP / IP.For a PC to be able to receive web pages or for a server to host web pages it must be configured to support this protocol.

Trusted Third Parties (TTP) Companies with which an agreement has been reached to share information.

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Undirected Information Seeker A person who does not know what information they are looking for - a surfer.

Uniform (Universal) Resource Locator (URL) Text that indicates the web address of a site. A specific domain name is typed into a web browser window and the browser will then locate and load the web site.

Unsubscribe An option to opt out from an email newsletter or discussion group.

Upload The transfer of files from a local computer to a server. Usually achieved using FTP.

Usenet Newsgroup An electronic bulletin board used to discuss a particular topic such as a sport, hobby or business area.

User Centred Design Design based on optimising the user experience according to all factors, including the user interface, which affect this.

User Session Used to specify the frequency of visits to a site. Not equivalent to site visit.

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Validation Validation services test for errors in HTML code which may cause a web page to be displayed incorrectly or for links to other pages that do not work.

Value Chain A model that considers how a business adds value to raw materials or information in order that it makes a return on investment.

Value Network The links between an organisation and its strategic and non strategic partners that form its external value chain.

Value Proposition of Site The benefits or value of a web site that are evident to users.

Vertical Portals These are generally business to business sites that will host content to help participants in an industry to get their work done by providing industry news, details of business techniques, products and service reviews.

View see page impression.

Viral Marketing email or communication used to transmit a promotional message to another potential customer from a customer.

Viral Referral An email a fried or colleague component to an email campaign or part of web site design.

Virtual Community An internet based forum for special interest groups to communicate using a bulletin board to post messages.

Virtual Mall A web site that brings together different electronic retailers at a single virtual (online) location. This contrasts with a fixed location infrastructure the traditional arrangement where retail organisations operate from retail stores situated in fixed locations such as ral world shopping malls.

Virtual Merchants Retailers such as Amazon that only operate online - they have no fixed location infrastructure.

Virtual Organisation An organisation that uses information and communications technology to allow it to operate without clearly defined physical boundaries between different functions. It provides customised services by out sourcing production and other functions to third parties.

Virtual Private Network Private network created using the public network infrastructure of the internet.

Virtualisation The process whereby a company develops more of the characteristics of the virtual organisation.

Visit see site visit.

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Web Application Protocol A standard that enables mobile phones to access text from web sites.

Web Addresses Web addressess refer to particular pages on a web server.

Web Analytics Reporting and analysis of data on web site visitor activity.

Web Browsers Browsers such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer provide an easy method of accessing and viewing information on the web. Differing versions of these browsers have different capabilities and functions.

Webmaster The webmaster is responsible for ensuring the quality of a web site. This means achieving suitable availability , speed, working links between pages and connections to databases as required.

Web Servers Web servers are used to store the web pages accessed by web browsers. They may also contain databases of customers or product information which can be queried and retrieved using a browser.

Web Site Content accessible on the world wide web that is created by a particular organisation or individual. The location and identity of a web site is indicated by its web address or domain name. It may be stored on a single server in a single location or a cluster of servers.

Web Site Management The process whereby metrics such as page impressions are collected and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of internet marketing activities in meeting customers, business and marketing objectives.

Wide Area Information Service (WAIS) An internet service that has been superseded by the world wide web.

Wireless Markup Language (WML) Standard for displaying mobile pages such as transferred by WAP.

World Wide Web A medium for publishing information on the internet. It is accessed through web browsers, which display web pages and can now be used to run business applications.

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XML An advanced markup language giving better control than HTML over format for structured information on web pages. Has been adopted as a standard by many applications and for information exchange.

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Material adapted from "Internet Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice" Chaffey, Mayer, Johnston and Ellis-Chadwick.